Pigmentation On Skin: Types, Causes and Treatment
Pigmentation in simple terms means colourings. Skin pigmentation disorder affects the colour of human skin. Human skin gets its colour from a pigment called ‘melanin’.
Melanin is made by the special cells which are present inside the body of plants and animals (including humans). When these cells are damaged or unhealthy, it directly affects the production of melanin.
Some of these pigmentations lead to disorder on some parts of your body while others take a serious turn and affect your entire body.
The more melanin is produced in a body the darker the skin colour of that person will be. If less melanin is produced in your body then the skin tone will be lighter.
The existence of skin pigmentation dates back to 1.2 million years ago, under conditions of mega-drought that drove the humans into open land leading to conditions like excess UV-B radiation.
The difference in skin colour is also because of the different environments and regulates the biochemical effects of ultraviolet radiation penetrating the skin.
∆Different Types of Pigmentation On Skin, Causes and Treatment:-
1.Albinism: – This is a type of rare disorder that is genetic. It reduces the quantity of melanin in the skin, hair and eyes. People suffering from this have white hair, pale skin and blue/grey eyes.
~Treatment: – There is no true cure for albinism.
- Avoid the sun as much as possible as it damages your skin and eyes.
- Wear sunglasses, gloves and gloves.
- If possible, receive an eye check-up from an ophthalmologist and wear the prescribed lenses.
- Take care of your skin by receiving an annual skin assessment to screen the skin cancer or lesions that may lead to cancer.
- No matter what the weather is, always use sunscreen and skincare products.
2.Age spots: – It’s also known as ‘Liver Spots’ or ‘Solar Lenities’, brown, tan or dark spots that appear on the skin which are exposed to the sun. They commonly appear on the face and hands or sun-exposed areas of the body. It casually appears on older adults or after extended sun exposure.
~Treatment: (Medication) applying bleaching creams or a mild steroid might gradually fade the spots over several months.
- Chemical peel off- applying a chemical-based liquid layer on top of the skin to remove the top dark spot layer and get the new spotless layer. It’s a time-consuming process.
3.Melasma: – it refers to the dark brown to grey-brown symmetric patches of pigment on the face. At the time of pregnancy, it is called the mask of pregnancy. Causes can range from sun exposure and hormones to birth control pills.
~Treatment:-sunscreen and avoiding sun exposure can prevent melasma from becoming worse.
- Apart from this, chemical peels and laser therapy can also be performed.
- Hydroquinone- This medication is a very common first treatment for melasma. It’s applied to the skin and works to even out your skin tone.
4.Vitiligo: – Vitiligo is a condition in which smooth, white patches appear on the skin. It’s caused by the loss of pigment-producing cells in the skin. It’s thought to be an autoimmune disease. These white patches are very sensitive to the skin.
~Treatment: – there is no permanent cure.
- The choice of treatment and therapy depends upon the age of the person, to know how much skin is affected and where or how quickly the disease is progressing and how it’s influencing your life.
- Use drugs that control inflammation. Applying a corticosteroid cream to affect skin might return colour.
- You can refer to light therapy which one has to undergo about 2 -3 times a week for about 6 months to a year to take full effect.
- You can also refer to the procedure of skin grafting. In this, the doctor transfers very small sections of your healthy pigment to areas that have lost their pigment.